- 1 Quick Introduction
- 2 CPU
- 3 Graphics
- 4 Audio
- 5 Games
- 6 Anti-Piracy & Homebrew
The internal design of the Game Boy Advance is quite impressive for a portable console that runs on two AA batteries.
This console will carry on using Nintendo’s signature GPU. Additionally, it will introduce a relatively new CPU from a UK company that will surge in popularity in years to come.
Most of the components are combined into a single package called CPU AGB. This package contains two completely different CPUs:
- A Sharp LR35902 running at either 8.4 or 4.2 MHz: If it isn’t the same CPU found on the Game Boy! It’s effectively used to run Game Boy (DMG) and Game Boy Color (CGB) games.
- An ARM7TDMI running at 16.78 MHz: This is the new processor we’ll focus on, it most certainly runs Game Boy Advance games.
Note that both CPUs will never run at the same time or do any fancy co-processing. The only reason for including the very old Sharp is for backwards compatibility.
Before ARM Holdings (currently “Arm”) became incredibly popular in the smartphone world, they licensed their CPU designs to power Acorn’s computers, Apple’s Newton, Nokia’s phones and the Panasonic 3DO. Nintendo’s chosen CPU, the ARM7TDMI, is based on the earlier ARM710 design, and includes:
- ARM v4 ISA: The 4th version of the 32-bit ARM instruction set.
- Three-stage pipeline: Execution of instructions are divided into three steps or stages. The CPU will fetch, decode and execute up to three instructions concurrently. This enables maximum use of the CPU’s resources (which reduces idle silicon) while also increasing the amount of instructions executed per unit of time.
- 32-bit ALU: Can operate 32-bit numbers without consuming extra cycles.
Moreover, this core contains some extensions referenced in its name (TDMI):
- T → Thumb: A subset of the ARM instruction set whose instructions are encoded into 16-bit words.
- Being 16-bit, Thumb instructions require half the bus width and occupy half the memory. However, since Thumb instructions offer only a functional subset of ARM you may have to write more instructions to achieve the same effect.
- Thumb only offers conditional execution on branches, its data processing ops use a two-address format, rather than three-address, and it only has access to the bottom half of the register file.
- In practice Thumb uses 70% of the space of ARM code. For 16-bit wide memory Thumb runs faster than ARM.
- If required, ARM and Thumb instructions can be mixed in the same program (called interworking) so developers can choose when and where to use each mode.
- D → Debug Extensions: Provide JTAG debugging.
- M → Enhanced Multiplier: Previous ARM cores required multiple cycles to compute full 32-bit multiplications, this enhancement reduces it to just a few.
- I → EmbeddedICE macrocell: Debug module that allows hardware breakpoints, watchpoints and allows the system to be halted while debugging.
The inclusion of Thumb in particular had a strong influence on the final design of this console. Nintendo mixed 16-bit and 32-bit buses between its different modules to reduce costs while providing programmers with the necessary resources to optimise their code. Usable memory is distributed across the following locations:
- IWRAM (Internal WRAM) → 32-bit with 32 KB: Useful for storing ARM instructions and data in big chunks.
- EWRAM (External WRAM) → 16-bit with 256 KB: Optimised for storing Thumb-only instructions and data in small chunks.
- PAK ROM -> 16-bit with variable size: This is the place where the cartridge ROM is accessed.
- Cart RAM -> 16-bit with variable size: This is the place where the cartridge RAM is accessed.
Although this console was marketed as a 32-bit system, the majority of its memory is only accessible through a 16-bit bus, meaning games will mostly use the Thumb instruction set to avoid spending two cycles per instruction fetch. Only critical sections should use the ARM instruction set.
How do they maintain compatibility?
You’ll be surprised that there is no software implemented to detect whether the cartridge inserted is a GB or GBA one. Instead, the console relies on hardware switches: A shape detector effectively identifies the type of cartridge and then only passes power through the required bus.
Before we begin, you’ll find the system a mix between the SNES and the Game Boy, the graphics core is still the well-known 2D engine called PPU. I recommend reading those articles before continuing since I’ll be revisiting lots of previously-explained concepts.
Compared to previous Game Boys we now have a colour LCD screen that can display up to 32,768 colours (15-bit). It has a resolution of 240×160 pixels and a refresh rate of ~60Hz.
Organising the content
We have the following regions of memory in which to distribute our graphics:
- 96 KB 16-bit VRAM (Video RAM): Where 64 KB store background graphics and 32 KB store sprite graphics.
- 1 KB 32-bit OAM (Object Attribute Memory): Stores up to 128 sprite entries (not the graphics, just the indices and attributes). Its bus is optimised for fast rendering.
- 1 KB 16-bit PAL RAM (Palette RAM): Stores two palettes, one for backgrounds and the other for sprites. Each palette contains 256 entries of 15-bit colours each, colour ‘0’ being transparent.
Constructing the frame
If you’ve read the previous articles you’ll find the GBA familiar, although there is additional functionality that may surprise you, and don’t forget that this console runs on two AA batteries.
I’m going to borrow the graphics of Sega’s Sonic Advance 3 to show how a frame is composed.
Sometimes we may want to compose a background from which the tile engine won’t be able to draw all required graphics. Now, modern consoles addressed this by implementing a frame-buffer architecture but this is not possible when there’s very little RAM… Well, the GBA happens to have 96 KB of VRAM which is enough to allocate a bitmap with the dimensions of our LCD screen.
Good news is that the PPU actually implemented this functionality by including three extra modes, these are called bitmap modes:
- Mode 3: Allocates a single fully-coloured (8bpp) frame.
- Mode 4: Provides two frames with half the colours (4bpp) each.
- Mode 5: There’s two fully-coloured frames with half the size each (160×128 pixels).
The reason for having two bitmaps is to enable page flipping: Drawing over a displayed bitmap can expose some weird artefacts during the process. If instead we manipulate another one then none of the glitches will be shown to the user. Once the second bitmap is finished the PPU can be updated to point to the second one, effectively swapping the displayed frame.
Overall it sounds like a cutting-the-edge feature, however most games held on to the tile engine. Why? Because in practice it costs a lot of CPU resources.
You see, while using a tile engine the CPU can delegate most of the computations to the graphics chip. By contrast, the frame-buffer system that the PPU provides is limited to only displaying that segment of memory as a single background layer, that means no more individual affine transformations, layering or effects unless the CPU computes them. Also, the frame-buffer occupies 80 KB of memory, so only 16 KB (half) are available to store sprite tiles.
For this reason, these modes are used exceptionally, such as for playing motion video (Game Boy Advance Video completely relied on this) or rendering 3D geometry with the CPU.
The GBA features a 2-channel sample player which works in combination with the legacy Game Boy sound system. [To be added later.]
Best of both worlds
Some games took the PCM-PSG duality further and ‘alternated’ the leading chip depending on the context.
In this game (Mother 3), the player can enter two different rooms, one relatively normal and the other with a nostalgic setting. Depending on the room the character is in, the same score will sound modern-ish or 8bit-ish.
Programming for the GBA was similar to the SNES with the addition of all the advantages of developing games in the early 2000s: Standardised high-level languages, better compilers, faster RISC CPUs, non-proprietary computers for development, comparatively better documentation and… Internet access!
Games are mostly written in C with critical sections in assembly (ARM and Thumb) to save cycles. Nintendo provided a SDK with libraries and compilers. BIOS calls were available to simplify I/O access and reduce cartridge size.
Game data is stored inside a new proprietary cartridge called GamePak.
Accessing cartridge data
While the ARM7 has a 32-bit address bus, there are only 24 address lines connected to the cartridge. This should mean that up to 16 MB can be accessed on the cartridge without needing a mapper, however, the official docs state that 32 MB of cartridge data are mapped in memory. So what’s happening here? The truth is, the Gamepak uses 25-bit addresses (which explains that 32 MB block) but its bottommost bit is fixed at zero, so the only 24 remaining bits are set. This is how Gamepak addressing works.
Now, does this mean that data located at odd addresses (with its least significant bit at ‘1’) will be inaccessible? No, because the data bus is 16-bit: For every transfer, the CPU/DMA will fetch the located byte plus the next one, allowing to read both even and odd addresses. As you can see, this is just another work of engineering that makes full use of hardware capabilities while reducing costs.
In order to hold saves, Game Paks could either include:
- SRAM: These need a battery to keep its content and can size up to 64 KB. It’s accessed through the GBA’s memory map.
- Flash ROM: Similar to SRAM without the need of a battery, can size up to 128 KB.
- EEPROM: These require a serial connection and can theoretically size up to anything (often found up to 8 KB).
The famous Game Boy Link Cable provided multi-playing capabilities. Additionally, the cable has a special feature internally known as Multi-boot: Another console (either GBA or GameCube) can send a functional game to the receiver’s EWRAM, then the latter would boot from there (instead of needing a cartridge).
Anti-Piracy & Homebrew
In general terms, the usage of proprietary cartridges was a big barrier compared to the constant cat-and-mouse game that other console manufacturers had to battle while using the CD-ROM.
To combat against bootleg cartridges (unauthorized reproductions), the GBA’s BIOS incorporated the same boot process found in the original Game Boy.
As solid state storage became more affordable, a new type of cartridge appeared on the market. Flashcards looked like ordinary Game Paks but had the addition of a card slot (SD, MiniSD, MicroSD or whatever) which enabled to run game ROMs. The concept is not new actually, developers have internally used similar tools in order to test their games on a real console (and manufacturers provided the hardware to enable this).
However, commercial availability of these cards proved to be a grey area: Nintendo condemned its usage due to enabling piracy where as some users defended that it was the only method for running Homebrew (programs made outside game studios and consequently without the approval of Nintendo). After Nintendo’s legal attempts, these cartridges were banned in some countries (like in the UK) nonetheless they still persisted worldwide.